Tuesday, November 13, 2018

Genesis 50:15-21

TAKE TIME TO REFLECT:

You might know the story of how Joseph's brothers had sold him into slavery when Joseph was a teenager. Many events occurred prior to this treacherous act and many events unfolded after it, but Genesis chapters 39-41 reveal how the Lord remained with Joseph and caused him to prosper in Egypt (cf. Gen. 39:2-3; 39:21-23; 41:39-40).

Some years later, Joseph's brothers came to Egypt during a famine to ask for food. Although they did not recognize Joseph, he recognized them. Genesis 45:1-15 records how Joseph forgives his siblings for their mistreatment of him.

It is with that background that we arrive to Genesis 50. Sadly, Jacob has now died. Consequently, the brothers concoct a story that their father pleaded on his deathbed for Joseph not to exact revenge on his brothers. In other words, they did not believe that Joseph had ever truly forgiven them.

Seventeen years had passed since Genesis 45. During all that time they feared their crime against Joseph was too great. This anxious spirit zapped them of the joy they could have known with their father and their brother if they had rested in the freedom of Joseph's forgiveness rather than let fear enslave them.

Richard Hoefler tells of a little boy visiting his grandparents while trying to learn how to use his first slingshot. Out in the woods, the boy grew frustrated by his inability to hit a target. 

Walking back to his grandparents farm, he spotted his grandmother's duck. The boy took aim and actually hit the duck with a stone. To his dismay, the duck fell over dead. 

In a panic, the boy hid the carcass of his grandmother's duck in the woodpile, only to find his little sister Sally watching. Although she witnessed everything that happened, she said nothing at the time.

Later, after lunch, Grandma said, "Sally, help me wash the dishes."

Sally responded, "Johnny told me he wanted to do that today." Then she whispered in her brother's ear, "Remember the duck."

Johnny did all the dishes.

That afternoon, Grandpa asked if Johnny and Sally wanted to go fishing. Grandma interjected that she needed Sally to help make dinner, but Sally just grinned and explained that Johnny said he preferred to assist with dinner. 

"Remember the duck," she whispered again. So Johnny stayed home while Sally went fishing.

After several days of doing both his and Sally's chores, Johnny finally broke. He went to his grandmother and confessed to killing her duck. Hugging her grandson, Grandma said, "I know, Johnny. I saw everything from the kitchen window. Because I love you, I already forgave you, but I was wondering how long you would let Sally make a slave of you."

Just as Johnny let himself be enslaved by Sally, many people become enslaved by the father of lies. Satan whispers in your ear, "Remember the duck." Therefore, like Joseph's brothers, you live in constant fear that God could never forgive you of some past sin. This anxious spirit zaps you of the joy that you should experience with your Heavenly Father and with Christ your Brother.

The story of Joseph and his brothers at the end of Genesis reveals the important lesson of our need to live in the freedom of forgiveness instead of the bondage to fear (cf. Isa. 38:17; Mic. 7:19; Heb. 8:12, 10:17). 

Notice how Joseph weeps because his brothers are afraid of him (Gen. 50:17). He lets them know that their fears are groundless, recalling what he had said the first time he disclosed his identity to them (cf. Gen. 45:5-11). "What he promised to them before his father arrived in Egypt he now reaffirms after he has gone. In these two passages we have expressed the key idea that informs the whole Joseph story, that through sinful men God works out His saving purposes" (Gordon J. Wenham).

Indeed, what Joseph's brothers intended for evil, God purposed for good (Gen. 50:20). Joseph recognized how the Lord used the events of his life to bring physical deliverance for his people, and he freely forgave his brothers. 

What humanity intended for evil at Calvary, God purposed for the greatest good. Christ paid the price that sin owed (a debt we could never repay on our own) in order to bring spiritual deliverance for His people, and now He stands ready to freely forgive.

Read John 8:34-36, and live in your freedom!


TAKE TIME TO RESPOND:

What sin from your life do you have trouble surrendering to the Lord in belief that He has truly forgiven you of it:

_____________________________________________________.


TAKE TIME TO REVIEW:

from Best Devotional Commentary - "I submit the example of the greatest evil in all history producing the greatest good imaginable. I refer to the crucifixion of the Lord Jesus Christ. It is parallel to the story of Joseph, because Joseph prefigured Christ in nearly every way. ... He was the favored of His Father, but He became a slave (and later rose to the highest position of power) in order to seek us out and save us. Most significant, He was hated by His brethren, the very ones the Father was using Him to save. He was innocent of any wrongdoing (cf. Isa. 53:7). Yet we hated Him. Against Him cruel and evil men poured out wrath. He was unjustly arrested, unjustly tried, unjustly convicted. Then He was killed without mercy. Never in the entire history of the world has greater evil been done - for this was an extreme of evil practiced against One who was not only innocent of crimes but was also actually sinless. 
     Yet from this greatest of all evils - evils that parallel but infinitely exceed the abuse inflicted on Joseph - God brought forth the greatest possible good: the salvation of a vast company of people" (Boice). 
     I will add here that Joseph's forgiveness of his brother's evil committed against him models Christ's forgiveness of us. "Father, forgive them," He cried out from the cross (Luke 22:34). Should we, then, not also freely forgive even the evils that are committed against us and then to let people know that they can live in the freedom of our forgiveness?!?! 

from Best Academic Commentary - "Most traditional commentators who hold that the Testament of Jacob is integral to the narrative argue that, since Jacob makes no clear reference to his sons' treatment of Joseph, he cannot have known what they had done to him. Therefore they suggest that this plea is, in Sternberg's words, a 'desperate fabrication.'" (Wenham).

from Best Preaching/Teaching Commentary - "The sovereign plan of God, designed to save many people alive, in some way incorporated the evil of the brothers and used it as the means of bringing about the good. On the basis of his confidence in the ways of the Lord, Joseph was able to comfort his brothers and relieve their fears. 
     Relationships among God's people may sometimes be tense, especially when ... leadership changes hands. But believers can use this to demonstrate God's sovereign design, even through human failures. They may do so through forgiveness and kindness" (Ross).

Friday, November 2, 2018

Genesis 29:31-35

TAKE TIME TO REFLECT:

Horatio Spafford planned a vacation for his family to England. Because of a business meeting, he sent his wife and their four daughters ahead of him on a ship called the Ville de Havre.

Midway across the Atlantic, the ship tragically collided with another vessel. In less than 15 minutes, the Ville de Havre sunk. The Spafford's four daughters were among the 266 passengers on the ship who perished. Anna, however, miraculously survived. Upon her rescue she telegrammed her husband two words: "Saved alone."

Immediately boarding the next ship out of New York, Horatio Spafford left to join his grieving wife. In close proximity to where the Ville de Havre had met with disaster, Spafford penned these words: "When peace like a river attendeth my way,/ When sorrows like sea billows roll;/ Whatever my lot, Thou hast taught me to say,/ It is well, it is well, with my soul."

The words to the hymn It is Well remind us to Whom we must look amid the many storms of our lives. In some ways it helps to form the same message that a young woman named Leah eventually embraces.

Reading in Genesis 29:31-35 about Leah naming her first four sons may seem inconsequential on the surface. Yet, the circumstances surrounding those births and the names of those sons reveal an important lesson for us in our faith journey.

Genesis 27:33 reminds us that Isaac intended to bless his oldest son Esau in accordance with Hebrew tradition, only Jacob tricked his father out of the blessing. In the midst of this deception, Isaac all but says, This is not what I deserve.

Jacob's trickery would arouse Esau's anger, forcing Jacob to flee from his family home to go live with his uncle Laban. Since Jacob was a Mama's boy and Esau was a burly hunter, Jacob rightfully feared his older brother.

Much to Jacob's delight, once he arrived to Haran he fell in love with Laban's youngest daughter Rachel. He agreed to work 7 years for Rachel's hand in marriage. After 7 years of hard work, Jacob's night for marriage came. With a thick veil over his bride's face, he took his vows.

Much to Jacob's chagrin, Genesis 29:25 highlights that he awoke to find Leah at his side. Laban told Jacob that Jewish custom demanded the older daughter marry before the younger one (Gen. 29:26). The trickster Jacob had been tricked, and from his tremendous disappointment he all but says: This is not what I deserve.

Jacob had worked hard with something in mind only to be disappointed. It is this disappointment that proves to have devastating results for Leah.

Think about it. Laban had given his oldest daughter's hand in marriage to a man who loved her younger sister. Worse yet, just one week later, Laban allows Jacob to marry Rachel in exchange for 7 more years of labor (Gen. 29:27-28). This was Leah's circumstance; consequently, she was always seeking after the love of her husband.

Women in that culture dealt with different challenges than women in today's Western society. A Hebrew woman's identity was wrapped up in marriage, and she brought honor to her husband by bearing him children (especially sons).

While Jacob's preferred wife Rachel was barren, God opened Leah's womb. She first has Reuben, whose name means "Behold, a son." Then she has another son, whom she calls Simeon or "God has heard." Next, she bears a son whom she names Levi, meaning "Attached."

"Behold a son - love me!" ... "God has heard my plight - love me!" ... "Another son for you - love me, attach yourself to me!"

Yet, despite giving Jacob three sons, he was not attached to Leah. His heart was for Rachel, and Leah was devastated. It seems reasonable enough that Leah would all but say, This is not what I deserve.

A former high school student that I taught and who also participated in a Bible study group that my wife and I led could certainly relate to the type of devastation Leah must have felt. During his senior year, the student lost his mother to cancer. That in and of itself is severe, but his senior year worsened.

The night before he was scheduled to leave on a Spring Break trip with his two best friends, the young man suffered a freak accident playing on an inflated bounce castle. The accident required surgeons to perform emergency life-threatening surgery to repair a ruptured artery. Instead of skiing in Colorado, he recovered in a hospital bed watching DVDs with me.

That's not all. This young man had always dreamed of following in the footsteps of his father and his brother by attending the West Point Academy. He had received word of his acceptance in February; now, due to the severity of his injury, West Point would no longer admit him.

Reuben - not what I deserve. Simeon - not what I deserve. Levi - not what I deserve.

But this is where we come to Leah's fourth son, whose name means "Praise." It does not seem at this particular point in her life that Leah puts her hopes or her identity or her central desire in the love of her husband. Here, Leah just says, "God be praised."

Perhaps this blog entry is written for you. Maybe you are hurting because you feel like your hopes have been crushed. I think of the many friends I know who have endured one or more miscarriages. Maybe you are hurting because your identity has been brought into question. I think of former students who were emotionally damaged by mean-spirited posts put up about them on social media. Maybe you are hurting because your heart has been broken. I think of men and women who have endured a divorce not of their own choosing.

Everyone has felt his or her own doses of devastation, but I pray that our circumstances - whatever they may be - do not end in a spirit of devastation. The central lesson for us from Leah's devastating experience emerges from the birth and naming of her fourth son Judah.

It is, after all, from the line of Judah that Jesus Christ came and lived a sinless life only to die a sinner's death. It is, after all, from the line of Judah that Jesus Christ conquered the grave as risen Lord.

Salvation emerges beyond the ashes from this story in Genesis that involves deception and disappointment and devastation. And salvation can emerge beyond even the ashes of our own stories.

Yes, "God be praised," the penalty I owe, Jesus paid. The death I am due, Jesus overcame. This is not what I deserve.

That's why Horatio Spafford could write amid his inexplicable devastation: "My sin, oh, the bliss of this glorious thought/ My sin, not in part but the whole,/ Is nailed to the cross, and I bear it no more,/ Praise the Lord, praise the Lord, O my soul."

Can you sing that today?


TAKE TIME TO RESPOND:

Write out a short prayer that you could say amid challenging seasons of your life to remind you to yet trust and praise God:

_____________________________________________________.


TAKE TIME TO REVIEW:

from Best Devotional Commentary - "The fourth son was called Judah, which means 'praise.' By this time, Leah had stopped seeing the birth of sons as a means by which her husband's love could be gained and instead merely praised God for the birth of the children.
     ... God changed Leah. He gave her grace to live in a less-than-perfect situation. He multiplied her joy in childbirth. He gave her sons who became the fathers of the greatest Jewish tribes. Levi was the father of the priests. Judah was the father of the tribe through which the Messiah came. Is that not interesting? The Lord Jesus Christ was not born of the line that came from Rachel, even though she was the one Jacob loved. He came from Leah" (Boice).  

from Best Academic Commentary - "This episode of the birth of Jacob's sons culminates with the birth of Joseph (30:24), which is the cue for Jacob to return home (30:25). This episode, which in fact spans about seven years, lies right at the center of the Laban-Jacob narrative and of the whole Jacob cycle itself. It presupposes all that has gone before, most obviously Jacob's flight to Haran and his involuntary bigamous marriage to Leah and Rachel. Here the unhappy tensions caused by that relationship are displayed most poignantly; the whole episode is governed by Leah's longing for Jacob's love and Rachel's craving for children. Leah's frequent pregnancies only aggravate Rachel's frustration at her own childlessness. But Leah's success in producing offspring leaves her deeply disappointed, for, far from drawing her husband closer to her, it leads her to be excluded from the marriage bed, so that only Rachel has access to Jacob. These dark passions govern the whole narrative, most obviously in Rachel's appeal to Jacob for children (30:1-2) and in Leah's trading mandrakes for sex (30:14-16), but also in the names given to the children, nearly all of which comment on the relationships between the sisters and their husband" (Wenham).


from runner-up to Best Preaching/Teaching Commentary - "Leah, the unwanted and unloved wife, gives birth to the forebears of four important tribes in Israel. Moses and Aaron would be born in the tribe of Levi; the Lord would choose the Levites to serve Him in His temple. David would be born in the tribe of Judah; the Lord would choose the royal line of kings from the tribe of Judah. As later Israel read the story of Laban's deception and Jacob's wrong choices, they would have become aware of a deep mystery: their sovereign Lord can fulfill His promises even through human deception and scheming" (Greidanus).


Friday, October 26, 2018

Genesis 28:10-22

TAKE TIME TO REFLECT:

The name Jacob in Hebrew means "heel-grabber," "supplanter," or "trickster." So he was. He had tricked his father Isaac into blessing him instead of his older brother Esau. As a result of his actions, he fled his homeland and family so that his angry older brother would not harm him.

On the way to stay with his Uncle Laban, Jacob stops for the night in a place called Bethel. The word "place" appears six times in Genesis 28:10-22. The Lord has a way of coming to the most unexpected of people in the most unexpected of places through the most unexpected of ways in the most unexpected of times to open our eyes to His love and mercy. 

That is the case with Jacob; that is the case with you and me as well.

Jacob felt alone, but God does not leave him alone. Jacob surely doubted how God's hand of blessing could be upon him, but God touches this wandering supplanter nonetheless. As Christians, you and I can identify with Jacob. None of us deserve God's favor, but He lavishes it upon us anyway. 

Jacob was asleep on the ground in Bethel with a stone beneath his head when the Lord appeared to him in a dream. Jacob saw a ladder leading to heaven with angels ascending and descending: Christ was that ladder (cf. John 1:51).

Matthew Henry points out that the bottom of the ladder is Christ in His human nature, whereas the top of the ladder is Christ in His divine nature. Jesus' two natures are necessary so that He can be "tempted in all things as we are, yet without sin" (Heb. 4:15). We have no way to heaven but by the Ladder; we have no way to the Father but through the person of Christ!

Our testimony may not be as extraordinary as Jacob's, but all Christians recognize that God chose to reveal Himself to us in a certain place and in a certain way. Maybe that revelation even happened in the womb like it did for John the Baptist! (cf. Luke 1:41) The crux of the matter is that salvation is found in no one else but Jesus, for there is no other name by which we must be saved (cf. Acts 4:12).

The central lesson from Jacob's encounter with the Lord at Bethel is that God has a propensity to show up in the lives of heel-grabbers and wanderers like you and me, which warrants a response from us. In Genesis 28:18-22, the young convert Jacob responds by promising to worship God and honor Him with a tithe.

Worship was at one time pronounced as worth-ship, meaning to acknowledge the worth that is in God alone (cf. Rev. 7:12). We should live our whole existence in the worship of God. As the old hymn proclaims, "I give Thee back the life I owe."

We find that Jacob's worship begins through a spirit of giving, just as Abram's did at his encounter with Melchizedek (cf. Gen. 14:18-20). Nevertheless, Jacob's maturity was not yet at the level of Abram's. Jacob, a new convert, says, "If God will ..." (Gen. 28:20).

Unfortunately, I think many Christians can identify with Jacob here, too. We believe, but we still put our feeble conditions upon God. 

Tony Evans once highlighted the story of Danny Simpson who robbed a bank in Canada at the age of 24. His take home from the robbery was $6,000, but Simpson was later captured and imprisoned. The tragedy of the event comes from the fact that he robbed the bank with a 1918 45-caliber semi-automatic Colt valued at $100,000. 

If Christians believed in the incalculable worth of God's faithfulness, they would not hesitate to trust Him with a tithe (10%). They would not rob a $6,000 safe with a $100,000 gun.

Instead of starting our sentence with "if God will," we would be far better off by starting a question with, "Has God been?" Has God been faithful to me, and what response do I thus owe Him?


TAKE TIME TO RESPOND:

I am sometimes prone to set conditions on my giving to God based on:

_____________________________________________________.


TAKE TIME TO REVIEW:

from Best Devotional Commentary - "As we look at Jacob's experience, I want you to see that God is also with you. You may be on the verge of a mental collapse; but although you cannot sense it, God is with you right now. You may be quite ill. You may be misunderstood by your friends. You may be abandoned by a husband, a wife, or your children. Even the church may have turned its back on you. You may have lost a job. You may be discouraged. You may have so little self-worth that you feel that no one will ever care for you again. ... I want you to hear God speaking. Where you are now can be a gate of heaven" (Boice).  

from runner-up to Best Academic Commentary - "The ladder stood there upon the earth, just where Jacob was lying in solitude, poor, helpless, and forsaken by men. Above in heaven stood Jehovah, and explained in words the symbol which he saw. Proclaiming Himself to Jacob as the God of his fathers, He not only confirmed to him all the promises of the fathers in their fullest extent, but promised him protection on his journey and a safe return to his home (vv. 13-15). But as the fulfillment of this promise to Jacob was still far off, God added the firm assurance, I will not leave thee till I have done what I have told thee.
     Jacob gave utterance to the impression made by this vision as soon as he awoke from sleep, in the words, Surely Jehovah was in this place, and I knew it not. Not that the omnipresence of God was unknown to him; but that Jehovah in His condescending mercy should be near to him even here, far away from his father's house and from the places consecrated to His worship, - it was this which he did not know or imagine" (Keil & Delitzsch).


from Best Preaching/Teaching Commentary - "The clear revelation of God's gracious dealings can transform a worldly individual into a worshiper. Such a drama has been repeated again and again throughout the history of the faith. Perhaps no story in Scripture illustrates this transformation so vividly as does Jacob's dream at Bethel. Before this experience Jacob was a fugitive from the results of his sin, a troubled son in search of his place in life, a shrewd shepherd setting out to find a wife. After this encounter, however, he was a partner with God as a recipient of His covenant promises and a true worshiper. The transformation was due to God's intrusion into the course of his life" (Ross).

Wednesday, October 24, 2018

Genesis 22:1-14

TAKE TIME TO REFLECT:

John Sammis wrote the hymn Trust and Obey after hearing the testimony of an uneducated young boy who came to know Christ under D.L. Moody's ministry. As the boy shared his conversion experience, it became clear that he knew little about the Bible and its doctrines. Yet, the last sentence of the boy's testimony inspired Sammis. He said, "I'm not really sure about everything. But I'm going to trust, and I'm going to obey."

In Genesis 22, God tells Abraham to sacrifice his uniquely born son Isaac. Some people voice trouble with this edict because no loving God would request such a thing and no loving father would heed it. In The Jerusalem Diamond, author Noah Gordon says through one of his characters: "I don't believe in sacrifice. If the story of Abraham and Isaac is true, Abraham was insane, not religious."

The context surrounding the events, however, makes all the difference. To date, Abraham had been growing in his faith, sometimes trusting and obeying and sometimes doubting and drifting. He came from a pluralistic pagan culture, but the Lord had called him out from it, and the Lord was continually shaping him in his faith journey. Does that ring a bell in your own spiritual life?

Abraham's background meant that he was well-versed in the idols of his day. One of those idols was Molech or Moloch, a Canaanite god which required child sacrifices. God is doing two things here: (1) He is testing the maturation of Abraham's faith, and (2) He is revealing to Abraham - and to us - that He is not like false gods. [Keep in mind how the false gods of success and wealth and prestige often call for us to sacrifice our children upon their altars while the true God calls us to cherish them and raise them in the hope of Christ.] 

No doubt God's instruction for Abraham in Genesis 22 was gut wrenching. Abraham had waited until his old age to miraculously have this child with Sarah, and now the Lord was asking for the unimaginable. Still, in the most difficult test to date in Abraham's life, he shows the fortitude of one who trusts and obeys.

Can you imagine traveling three days with your son, knowing that at the end of the journey you were called to sacrifice him? The time would seem like an eternity. I speak from experience in the sense that I had to wait over a week for doctors to perform a MRI on my oldest son's head to rule out a brain tumor when he was only a year old. I can tell you that the wait was excruciating. 

Yet, Abraham's obedience in these moments extends from his trust. Notice that on the third day Abraham tells his servants to wait at the bottom of the mountain. "The lad and I will go yonder and worship," he says, "and we will come back to you" (Gen. 22:4-5).

Abraham's words suggest that he believed God would resurrect Isaac even if the Lord actually required that he sacrifice his son (cf. Heb. 11:17-19). Abraham now completely trusted that God would fulfill His promise to bring about a great nation through Isaac, a promise that the Lord had spoken to him on five previous occasions (cf. Gen. 12,13,15,17,18).

The voice of the One speaking makes all the difference. Pastor Tony Evans tells the story of a young blind girl caught in a fire on the 10th floor of a building. As she somehow made her way to a window, the fireman yelled from below, "Jump or you will die!" She replied, "I am afraid to jump."

It is hard enough to leap from 10 stories, but it must be even more terrifying when you cannot see to whom or to where you are jumping. Yet, in the midst of the chaos and confusion, she heard a second voice: "Darling, jump. I've got you." She then smiled and said, "Okay, Daddy, I will jump."

Luke 1:45 suggests that faith is the belief God will fulfill His promises to us. It is the confidence that we can trust our Daddy's voice. Thus Abraham took his son to Moriah, and it is upon this hill where we see why we can trust God with what is most precious to us. 

Let this picture resonate in your mind's eye:
Abraham leads his son up a hill while Isaac carries wood upon his back. He straps Isaac to the wood that his son had carried. Only the Lord never intended for Abraham to sacrifice Isaac as if He were a false god like Molech/Moloch; instead, He provides a ram in the thicket. 

Can you see it? The Heavenly Father led His Son up a hill called Calvary, even as Christ carried wood upon His back. Then, the only begotten Son of God was nailed to that wood. There was no lamb in the thicket for Him; Christ was the sacrificial lamb for us!

The central lesson from this account in Genesis 22 for us is that we can trust God with what is most precious to us because He gave the One most precious to Himself for us.

Henri Nouwen compares such trust to trapeze artists. The flyer is the one who releases from the swing, and the catcher is the one who catches. High above the crowd, the flyer lets go and soars out into the air. Her job simply involves waiting for the strong hands of the catcher to pluck her from the air. The flyer must never try to catch the catcher; she must wait, completely trusting in the strength and faithfulness of the catcher. 

Will you trust the supreme Catcher today - the One who caught a ram in the thicket to take the place of Isaac? Will you trust the supreme Catcher today - the One who sent the spotless Lamb to take your place? If you trust Him, He promises never to let you go no matter what (cf. Deut. 31:6; John 10:27-30).

Calvary was not the end. There was a third day, and the Father resurrected His Son. For those of us who trust Him, as made evident by our desire to obey Him, we shall share in that resurrection (cf. 1 Cor. 6:14). 


TAKE TIME TO RESPOND:

I struggle to trust and obey God's voice in seasons of my life when:

_____________________________________________________.


TAKE TIME TO REVIEW:

from Best Devotional Commentary - "Abraham acted in a manner consistent with his knowledge of God. That is he trusted Him, concluding that whatever God's purposes may or may not have been in this situation, God had at least shown that He could not be his enemy. God was his friend. When the command to sacrifice Isaac was first given, Abraham did not understand how, if the command were carried out, the promise could be fulfilled. But that was all right. Abraham left the difficulty with God, which is the essence of true faith. What is faith? Faith is believing God and acting upon it. This is what Abraham did. God had shown that He could be trusted, so Abraham believed God and acted, even though he could not understand the solution to the difficulty" (Boice).  

from Best Academic Commentary - "Finally they reach the top, 'the place which God had told them about.' Lest in the horror of the final scene we forget why Abraham is doing this, the narrator reminds us: he was obeying God. There an altar has to be built, and the wood must be laid on the altar. This was a real sacrifice according to proper ritual procedures, and there was plenty of time for Isaac to realize, if he had not before, what was going to happen and to run away. But he did not. In fact, he allowed himself to be bound before Abraham cut his throat. This action above anything indicates his consent. The OT nowhere speaks of sacrificial animals having their legs bound before slaughter, and if Isaac had been reluctant to be sacrificed, it would have been easier for Abraham to have cut his throat or stabbed him rather than tie him up first and then place him on the altar. But he was tied, indicating his own willing submission to God's command revealed to his father" (Wenham).
     Let me point out the jaw-dropping extent of typology within Genesis 22. Abraham represents the heart of a father tasked with surrendering his uniquely begotten son. Isaac represents the submission of a son to his father's will. So it is that we should know how excruciating it was for the Heavenly Father to surrender His only begotten Son. So it is that we should know that Jesus Christ submitted to His Father's will in order to save sinners like you and me from our sins.  

from runner-up to Best Preaching/Teaching Commentary - "For our present narrative, the important issue shown in this chiasm is the narrator's deliberate parallel development between Genesis 12:1-9 and Genesis 22:1-19 as well as further progression. In Genesis 12 the Lord commanded Abram to 'go' (lek-leka), offer up his past (country, kindred, father's house), and receive the promises of the Lord's rich blessings. In this narrative the Lord commands Abraham to 'go' (lek-leka), but now to offer up his future, 'your son, your only son Isaac, whom you love.' The stakes are raised. Now Abraham has to rely on the Lord even when the Lord seems to go back on His covenant promises. But when he obeys, the Lord speaks to him a final time - the promised blessings in even heightened form" (Greidanus).

Thursday, October 18, 2018

Genesis 15:1-21

TAKE TIME TO REFLECT:

When God appears to Abram in a vision saying that his reward shall be great (15:1), Abram questions how that could be the case considering he would have to adopt Eliezer among his household as heir (15:2). In the ancient world the greatest tragedy imaginable was childlessness because no one would remain to carry on the family line.

Yet, the Lord tells Abram that his descendants shall be greater than the number of stars in the sky (15:5). Genesis 15:6 subsequently stresses a truth that transcends the moment. We read, "Then he believed in the Lord; and He reckoned it to him as righteousness."

Below under TAKE TIME TO REVIEW, I quote from Gordon J. Wenham to highlight just a little bit of the theological magnitude associated with Genesis 15:6 and its connection to our being justified by faith alone. In this blog entry, however, I wish only to comment on a few characteristics about Abram's faith and its connection to us.

1. Faith and Feelings:

In our culture when we introduce ourselves, one of the first questions anyone asks us is: "What do you do?" It is something of an identifier. 

It might prove a bit uncomfortable if I were laid off as a teacher and someone asked me what I did. If I said, "I'm a teacher," what would likely be his or her next question - "Oh, where do you teach?"  

In Abram's culture, a primary identifier often accompanied your actual name. Consider that Abram means "Exalted Father." Then, in Genesis 17:5, the Lord expands his name to Abraham, meaning "Father of a Multitude."

When Abram introduced himself, I doubt it absurd that someone might ask, "Tell me exalted father, how many children do you have?" I imagine it could prove awkward to say, "Well, actually, none." Or, "You must have a lot of children father of a multitude?" Only to say, "I have but one" (cf. Gen. 16:16).

Could you imagine how the meaning of his name and the circumstance of his life might have impacted his sense of being? Still, in Genesis 15:6, Abram does not let his feelings dictate his faith; rather, his faith shapes his feelings.

Put it like this: You are a singer who is at risk of losing your vocal chords. Or you are a parent dealing with a son who has a drug addiction. Or you are a single woman who has always wanted to be married with children. 

In various circumstances of our lives, it is easy for the way we feel amid uncertain or trying situations to dictate whether we trust God or not. Things look bleak, so we doubt and perhaps try to take control of matters for ourselves. 

But at least in Genesis 15:6 Abram's faith is to say, "Even though things don't seem to add up right now, I will not live discouraged but will stand on the promises of God." The quality of Abram's faith in Genesis 15:6 is the precursor to why we call him the Father of our Faith. 

Indeed, all who would place their faith in the coming Messiah (Old Testament) followed by all who will place their faith in the resurrected Messiah (New Testament) are children of Abraham. His descendants outnumber the stars!

2. Promise and Patience:

The Lord's promise to Abram is not just for many children; it is also for a land. That promise is made through a covenant that God establishes with Abram (15:18), of which circumcision becomes its sign (cf. Gen. 17:10-11). 

The covenant with Abraham finds its completion in the New Testament era, only the sign of baptism replaces the sign of circumcision (cf. Col. 2:11-12). The land of promise is not Canaan but the Celestial City (cf. Heb. 11:8-16). 

In establishing the Abrahamic covenant, God tells Abram that his descendants would have to wait to enter the land of promise. Along the way, before possessing it, they would encounter obstacles and hardships and suffering (15:13). One day, though, the people of promise would enter into the place of promise.  

Jesus Christ fulfills the covenant made with Abram/Abraham. Abram was promised a seed in the miraculous birth of Isaac, through whom the nation of Israel would emerge. Isaac's birth was but a precursor to the true seed - the miraculous birth of Jesus Christ, from whom a spiritual nation of a royal priesthood emerges (cf. Gal. 3:16; 1 Pet. 2:9).

While those in the physical lineage of Abraham would eventually inherit the land of Canaan for what would prove to be a season, those who place their trust in Christ (the spiritual lineage of Abraham) will inherit a celestial land of promise for eternity. However, before possessing it, Christians can expect along the way to encounter obstacles and hardships and suffering in this life. The promises of God require patience. 

3. Example and Encouragement:

Not all examples are positive. Abram was a man in process. 

In Genesis 16, Abram lets his feelings dictate his faith, rather than vice versa. He loses patience in the promise and tries to assume control of matters himself by agreeing to take Sarai's handmaid Hagar for a wife and conceiving a son by her. In Genesis 20, Abraham lets fear overtake his faith, rather than vice versa. He lies to the foreign king Abimelech - not acknowledging Sarah as his wife - instead of trusting the Lord's protection. 

In this way I conclude by suggesting that we should let both the positive and negative examples of Abraham's faith be an encouragement to us. At times we will be stronger in our faith; other times we will be weaker. 

Our Father in the Faith was not a giant in the faith from the start. His faith constantly grew - through moments of unyielding trust and after times of undeniable doubt. His faith was not perfect, and neither will ours yet be. The moments in our lives when we lack patience in God's promises or when we grow fearful in our predicaments should not deter us from the ongoing journey.

The character of Abram's faith should thus teach us three practical lessons: (1) let your faith in the promises of God dictate your feelings rather than your feelings amid uncertain moments dictate your faith, (2) the fulfillment of God's promises for God's people require patience, and (3) do not allow times when you fail in your faith fool you into believing that you cannot continue to grow spiritually and serve God significantly. 


TAKE TIME TO RESPOND:

Right now in my faith journey, I need to believe God for:

______________________________________________.


TAKE TIME TO REVIEW:

from Best Devotional Commentary - "One of our problems is that we are always looking down. Essentially, we are looking at ourselves, and that leads to doubt. We look at ourselves and say, 'I don't see how I can do that. I don't see how I can believe what God is promising.' If we were in Abram's shoes, we would say, 'I don't see how I am going to have children at my age.' The problem is that we are looking at ourselves. We are not the one who gives the promises. God is. So we need to stop looking down and start looking up. We need to have our minds stretched by God's greatness. ...
     The ultimate question in life is whether you believe God. It is not a question of whether you believe in God. Many people say they believe in God. There has to be a God, in their opinion. But this does not mean anything to them. The real question is whether you believe God, who makes these promises, and whether you live by what God has promised. Has God spoken? If so, has God spoken clearly? If God has spoken clearly, can God be trusted to do what He has promised? Wise is one who answers yes to those questions and lives by faith in those promises" (Boice).  

from Best Academic Commentary - "Abram is a model for all his descendants to imitate: whatever their circumstances, they must have faith in God. The importance of faith is underlined by the following clause, 'it was counted to him as righteousness' (v. 6). Righteousness is a guarantee of salvation, of acquittal in the day of judgment. It involves conformity to God's will set forth in the law. Here, however, faith counts for righteousness: it is the response of believing obedience to the word of God, not righteous deeds, that counted for righteousness. To be sure, such faith, when genuine, issues in righteous deeds, but that it is not what the text says: faith counts for (instead of) righteousness.
     It is therefore natural and right for the NT writers to refer to this text in describing how salvation is available in Christ. Paul stresses that faith for Abram meant believing in God's promise of a child, an attitude to God that preceded his acts of obedience (Rom. 4). While Genesis implies that the sons of Abram must be men of faith, Paul turns the words around and explains, 'it is men of faith who are the sons of Abraham' (Gal. 3:7)" (Wenham).

from Best Preaching/Teaching Commentary - "The principles in this chapter are essentially the same for any age. Today people become the people of God by faith as well, and their faith brings righteousness before God (Rom. 4:3; Gal. 3:6). To New Testament believers God has also made great promises (Heb. 9:15, et al.), but those promises seem to be greatly delayed in the face of suffering and death (2 Peter 3:9). By His covenant which He made by His own blood, however, our Lord has guaranteed that His Word is sure and that neither death nor oppression can destroy His promises (Heb. 7:20-25; Rom. 8:31-39)" (Ross).

Friday, October 12, 2018

Genesis 14:17-24

TAKE TIME TO REFLECT:

At a university where I previously taught, I asked the late Dr. Rev. Charles Roach of Trinity Mount Carmel Baptist Church in Florissant, MO, to speak to a group of students about a few distinctive marks of the African-American church experience. In doing so, Dr. Roach essentially preached a sermon from Proverbs 3:1-10. 

Amid a number of poignant comments, Dr. Roach sought to drive home one central idea. He stated that in many African-American churches the true worship of Christ does not begin until the people have first offered their tithe (cf. Prov. 3:9-10). Why? Because our giving back to God is a proper response to the manifold blessings He has bestowed on, for, and over us. This is precisely the point that Abram's actions in Genesis 14 reflect. 

Abram learns of a circumstance that demanded his attention. Certain earthly kings had engaged in war (cf. Gen. 14:1-9), and Abram's nephew Lot - along with many other people - had been taken prisoner (cf. Gen. 14:10-12). Consequently, Abram organizes his "trained servants" and goes to battle in order to assist Lot and others who were held captive (cf. Gen. 14:13-15). 

After Abram's success in battle (cf. Gen. 14:16), a curious meeting occurs. We are introduced to the mysterious king Melchizedek from Salem (cf. Gen. 14:18-20). Either Melchizedek is a type of Christ or he is an appearance of the pre-incarnate Christ:
1. The name Melchizedek means, "My King is Righteous."
2. Some scholars believe Salem is an older, shorter name for the city of Jerusalem, and it is the root word from which we derive the word "peace."
3. Melchizedek occupied the office of Priest and King, two distinct offices in Israel that no one other than Jesus held simultaneously.
4. The Priest-King sets before Abram bread and wine in what may very well prelude the body of Christ broken and the blood of Christ shed at Calvary.

No matter how we perceive the person of Melchizedek, the clear purpose he plays is to direct our attention to the source of our victory and peace. The blessing that Abram enjoyed and the spoils of his victory came as a result of the God Most High, the Creator of all things and the One who delivers us from our enemies (cf. Gen. 14:19-20). It certainly has a redemption ring to it.

We have victory over Satan, sin, and death, and we enjoy the peace of eternal life solely as a result of Christ's work. It is the redemption story.

Apart from the High Kingly-Priest after the order of Melchizedek (cf. Heb. 7), we have no hope. Nowhere is Abram or Abraham ever depicted as a man of military prowess, yet he experiences deliverance because of what God does. Nowhere are we ever depicted as righteous individuals, yet we can receive the righteousness of God because of what Christ has done on our behalf (cf. 2 Cor. 5:21).

Thus, as partakers of such an inexplicable blessing, we worship. What was Abram's immediate act of worship? It was to give. Therein is the point Dr. Roach had made. We do not truly worship until we truly give back to the One who is the sole source of our victory and our peace.

Perhaps beginning our worship by giving back to the Lord also helps prepare us to be living sacrifices, holy and acceptable to God, which is our reasonable service (Rom. 12:1). It certainly appears to prepare Abram to resist worldly temptation. 

Immediately following Abram's engagement with Melchizedek, he meets with the king of Sodom. No doubt, Sodom's king reflects the god of this age (cf. 2 Cor. 4:4), which seeks to tempt and to destroy. He promises us riches and spoils at the expense of souls (cf. Gen. 14:21). Only we are less likely to yield to the wiles of the various forms that this Sodomite king assumes if we have already emptied ourselves in selfless giving and praise at the feet of our Redeemer! (cf. Gen. 14:22-23)

The take home lesson for us from Abram's exchanges between the King of Salem and the King of Sodom is this: If we have a heart of gratitude that freely gives to the Lord, then we will be far less likely to be taken by or with the enticements of this world (cf. Matt. 6:21).


TAKE TIME TO RESPOND:

I sometimes struggle to give from my financial resources as an act of worship because:

_____________________________________________________.


TAKE TIME TO REVIEW:

from Best Devotional Commentary - "Abram drew close to God before he drew away from Sodom. And since he was blessed by God, he did not need whatever blessing he might have supposed the world could give. I do not think it an accident that we are told that when Melchizedek came out to meet Abram he brought with him 'bread and wine,' which Abram partook of and perhaps shared with his soldiers. Nothing more is said about this gift in Genesis. But we can hardly miss the fact that these are the communion elements of the New Testament era and that they symbolize the most intimate communion with God. Bread is the symbol of life (John 6:50), and God is the source of life. Wine is the symbol of joy (Ps. 104:15), and God is the source of joy. In an even more dramatic way, these are the gifts of Jesus, who said, 'I am the resurrection and the life' (John 11:25), and 'I say these things while I am still in the world, so that they may have the full measure of My joy within them' (John 17:13). ... 
     Drawing upon the life and joy of God in close communion with Him was Abram's secret weapon. It should be ours as well. As long as we are far from God, the world will present its temptations and we will succumb to them because there will be nothing deep within to warn us away. If we are filled by God, who comes to us at the end of the day of battle and fills us with His bread and wine, we will be filled to overflowing and will want nothing more. It is said that John Knox, the great Scottish reformer, was once asked if he was not afraid to face the Queen of Scotland. He replied, 'How can I fear a mere earthly monarch when I have just spent four hours with God?' The one who lives close to God cannot be intimidated by any earthly king" (Boice).  

from Best Academic Commentary - "He gave him a tenth of everything. Tithing was an old and widespread custom in the ancient orient. Tithes were given to both sanctuaries and kings. Melchizedek qualifies on both counts. Here, however, it is probably in virtue of his priesthood that Abram gives him a tithe. For as Abram has received a priestly blessing from Melchizedek, it is fitting that he should respond in the customary fashion. Here Abram, father of the nation, sets an example for all his descendants to follow ..." (Wenham).

from Best Preaching/Teaching Commentary - "In this sequence we have the king of Sodom going out, the king of Salem bringing out, the king of Salem blessing, and the king of Sodom bartering (Sodom-Melchizedek-Melchizedek-Sodom). The central thrust of the story is clearly the action and speech of Melchizedek - it separates the action and the speech of the king of Sodom. Abram was far more prepared to resist the offer from Sodom after receiving the blessing of Melchizedek" (Ross).

Wednesday, October 3, 2018

Genesis 11:26-12:4

TAKE TIME TO REFLECT:

My wife Brooke often tells me that she desires "safety, security, and stability." She wants me to put down an anchor rather than just throw out a fish bobber. 

During our marriage, I confess to having submitted my resume in the past to some places without talking to Brooke about it first. Others probably can appreciate the vexation she felt over this. My wife just wants to plant roots and establish community.

Yes, it is purely speculation on my part to say that Abram's wife Sarai would have longed for that as well. If she did, however, she never experienced much in the way of safety, security, and stability in her marriage to Abraham, the father of our faith.

I contend that Abram received the call from God twice to go where the Lord would lead him. The first time he had left Ur with his father and other family members, but he stopped short of the intended destination (Canaan) and stayed in Haran (cf. Gen. 11:31). The second time Abram finally fully obeyed, leaving behind his father Terah to go the rest of the way (cf. Gen. 12:4).

In other words, in a span of a very short time, Abram had uprooted Sarai not once but twice. To go where? Abram was not entirely sure  (cf. Gen. 12:1). Because why? God said. 

Only for Sarai, she might wonder which "god" Abram had heard from. Typical of people from Mesopotamia (cf. Gen. 11:28), Abram and Sarai were probably pluralistic in their religious practices at this point. Sarai might question if Abram should follow "this particular god's" voice. 

Plus, if Sarai was anything like my wife, she would not want to leave the safety, security, and stability that accompanied living alongside Abram's father. Brooke certainly would have wanted to know more about where I was taking her:  what were the school systems like, would she find new friends, did it have a Target, were there good medical facilities nearby, etc.? 

This biblical account reminds me somewhat of Bilbo Baggins in The Hobbit. Gandalf the Wizard invites Bilbo on an adventure, but Bilbo is resistant to the idea because it would make him "late for dinner." While Bilbo at first expresses an unwillingness to step outside his comfort zone, he ultimately embarks on an unexpected journey. That journey would change Bilbo for the better and impact Middle-earth for the good. 

If I am correct that Abram twice received the call from God "to go," why did he initially stop short of the destination? There is no way of knowing, but I contend perhaps he too was comfortable in the safe, secure, and stable existence that he knew at his father's side. Allen P. Ross further suggests that Haran was their ancestral home. It appears, then, that Abram did not want to be "late for dinner." 

Yet, while Terah remained in Haran (cf. Gen. 11:32; see Wenham below), Abram eventually does fully embark on the journey God called him to make (cf. Gen. 12:4). That journey would change Abram for the better and impact humanity for the good (cf. Gen. 12:2-3). 

Herein resides the lesson every believer who follows Christ should take away from the call of Abram. We cannot settle down in our safety, security, and stability for comfort's sake. No, we must be ready to answer God's call wherever He leads us and whenever He beckons us. 

Let me suggest that the only sense of safety, security, and stability we should cling to in this life resides in Christ's eternal grip (cf. John 10:28). Let us not fear being "late for dinner." Let us never become so settled wherever we are or whatever we are doing that we resist the adventure to which God is calling us. 

Such an adventure might involve moving to a new place, or it might mean doing something outside our comfort zones right where we are. If it is a God-sized adventure, though, do not count on it being easy, just count on in it being life-changing. While the call certainly will move us beyond categories of safety, security, and stability, if it is truly from the Lord it will transform us for the better and impact others for the good. 


TAKE TIME TO RESPOND:

An adventure that I sense God calling me on that I am resistant to take is:

_____________________________________________________.


TAKE TIME TO REVIEW:

from Best Devotional Commentary - "The second thing that needs to be noted about God's call to Abram is that it probably came to him on at least two occasions, which suggests that Abram started out after receiving the first call but faltered and stopped along the way. ... This means that although Abram believed God enough to start out on his journey after God had appeared to him in Ur, his faith was still weak and needed much cultivation. It is a way of saying that one does not need to be a spiritual giant to become a follower of God - after all, none of us is a spiritual giant. All one has to do is begin to follow Him" (Boice).  

from Best Academic Commentary - In light of Genesis 12:4, Gordon J. Wenham writes: "Seventy-five years old implies that Abram left Haran sixty years before his father died; cf. 11:26,32. Without spelling it out explicitly, this remark shows Abram putting the call of God above loyalty to his family (cf. Deut. 13:7-11 [6-10]; Matt. 10:37). Cassuto notes that Abram's life shows an interesting symmetry:  
75 years with his father
25 years without father or son
75 years with his son."

from Best Preaching/Teaching Commentary - "The message is, indeed, that faith is demonstrated by obedience, but the circumstances in the story make this message especially powerful. Abram's obedience was not a simple act of faith (if we dare speak of such); his was the conversion of a pagan. Abram was advanced in years, probably prosperous and settled, but in a thoroughly pagan world. The Word of the Lord came to him - although we do not know how or in what form - and he left his world and his relatives to follow the Lord's command. ...
     The divine imperative simply instructed Abram to leave. He was told very specifically what he was to leave - his land, his relatives, and his father's household (note the repetition of min, 'from'). But he was told nothing of the land that God would show him. Indeed, divine imperatives seldom give the details of what is to happen, although they often specify what is not to be done" (Ross).

Monday, October 1, 2018

Genesis 11:1-9

TAKE TIME TO REFLECT:

In the Garden of Eden, Adam and Eve desired to be like God (cf. Gen. 3:5-6). As a result of their disobedience, they were cast out (cf. Gen. 3:23).

After sin entered the world, civilization increasingly lived as if it did not need God and evil spread rampantly (cf. Gen. 6:5). As a result of their wickedness, God judged the earth through an all-encompassing flood (cf. Gen. 6:17).

At the Tower of Babel, humanity sought to create a political and religious system apart from God (cf. Gen. 11:4). As a result of their hubris, God confused and scattered the people (cf. Gen. 11:8-9).

The first 11 chapters of Scripture accentuate the great desire of sinners to live outside the rule of God and to glorify self. Consequently, the pre-history of Israel ends by showing us that such a desire never bodes well.

The people sought to build a tower "topped by the heavens" (11:4). In other words, they began to establish a false religion with the marks of the zodiac. "Turn to any book on astrology and you will find that it was the Chaldeans (another name for the inhabitants of Babylon) who first developed the zodiac" (James Montgomery Boice). They wanted a system of life that excluded God and exalted self.

Life at the exclusion of God would have simply resulted in the profuseness of wickedness that the world knew before the Great Flood (11:6). The Lord would not let such horror reign again, so He confuses and scatters the people in order to stymie their godless political and religious aspirations (11:7-9). I think this interpretation correct, for the same type of ziggurat structures or stepped pyramids began to pop up across the world after Babel - a sign that even a divided people still maintain the inclination to exalt self and their idols.

The attempt to exalt a political and religious system at Babel is merely a precursor to Babylon and its symbolic representation of Satan's effort to lead the nations against God (see Rev. 17). Only God has control of Satan, and the wicked one will never triumph. The Lord confounds all the Babels throughout history so that truth, mercy, grace, and love will prevail over falsehood, misery, viciousness, and hatred.

While the great desire of sinners revealed at the Tower of Babel leads to separation, death, and destruction, the great grace of God manifest at Pentecost (cf. Acts 2) leads to togetherness, life, and renewal through Christ.

Even in the light of this truth, the world around us continually attempts to exalt systems that exclude the necessity of God. The great desire of sinners flourishes because the father of lies continues to deceive. We assume that we can do it ourselves through hard work, that we can find the cures we need through science, that we can overcome injustices through altruism, and so on.

Who would ever deter someone from working hard? Who doesn't want to find a cure for various forms of cancer? Who would not want to see an end to starvation, brutality, and so forth?

All those things are good until we exalt our own efforts above God, and we view ourselves as so self-important that we have no need for Him. Plus, examine reality for a moment:
1. No matter how hard we work, sometimes our labors do not yield the results we desire.
2. No matter how much science discovers, people will continue to die.
3. No matter how widespread our altruistic efforts extend, suffering and injustice will still exist.

Too often our great desire is to exalt ourselves, but the overwhelming truth is that we desperately need the grace of God. Do you notice in the Tower of Babel account that no matter how elaborate the people might have built their city, God had to "come down" to see it? (11:5) No matter how much we think we can achieve, God stands above it all.

Therefore, the lesson for us to heed in studying the Tower of Babel is quite plain: Our great desire for self-exaltation must be replaced with our great need for Christ's sufficiency.


TAKE TIME TO RESPOND:

I recognize how "the great desire of sinners" can materialize in my life whenever:

_____________________________________________________.


TAKE TIME TO REVIEW:

from Best Devotional Commentary - James Montgomery Boice brilliantly breaks down this text by addressing three uses of "Come." The first important come involves sinful humanity's desire to construct a city for their own glory (Gen. 11:3-4). The second important come involves God's immensity as contrasted with human inadequacy, and the Lord's confusing human language (Gen. 11:7).
     He then concludes, "It would not be right to end without noting that the Bible also knows a third use of the word 'come' in which an invitation is extended by God to man for man's benefit. God says, 'Come now, let us reason together. ... Though your sins are like scarlet, they shall be as white as snow; though they are red as crimson, they shall be like wool' (Isa. 1:18). Jesus says, 'Come to Me, all you who are weary and burdened, and I will give you rest' (Matt. 11:28). 'The Spirit and the bride say, Come! And let him who hears say, Come! Whoever is thirsty, let him come; and whoever wishes, let him take the free gift of the water of life' (Rev. 22:17).
     What is the result when we who hear God's invitation come to Him? It is just as He says! Our sins are washed away. Our burdens are lifted. Our spiritual thirst is quenched. Moreover, the effects of the curse are overturned and the proper desires of the human heart are provided for, not by man in rebellion against God, to be sure, but by the gracious and forgiving God Himself from whom all truly good gifts come" (Boice).

from Best Academic Commentary - "With heavy irony we now see the tower through God's eyes. This tower which man thought reached to heaven, God can hardly see! From the height of heaven it seems insignificant, so the Lord must come down to look at it! 'He sits above the circle of the earth, and its inhabitants are like grasshoppers' (Isa. 40:22). God's descent to earth to view the tower is no more proof of the author's primitive anthropomorphic view of God than is God's asking Adam and Eve where they were hiding in the garden an indication of His ignorance. It is simply a brilliant and dramatic way of expressing the puniness of man's greatest achievements when set alongside the Creator's omnipotence. ...
     But though man's highest achievement was pathetic in God's eyes, the motives that prompted his efforts were horrific. The desire to displace God from heaven, to make a name for oneself rather than allow God to do this, and to scheme without reference to His declared will, prompts one final judgment that will hobble man's attempts at cooperation once and for all. The confusion of languages prevents community living and technological cooperation: people cannot trust or work with those they do not understand" (Wenham).

from runner-up to Best Preaching/Teaching Commentary - "The new beginning after the flood was soon spoiled by human power grabbing: Nimrod, a descendent of Ham, 'was the first on earth to become a mighty warrior. ... The beginning of his kingdom was Babel, Erech, and Accad, all of them in the land of Shiner' (10:8,10). By reversing the chronological order from the confusion of language of Babel (Gen. 11) followed by various nations with different languages (10:5,20,31), the narrator concludes this toledot with the major power grab at Babel and God's judgment. For some reason, he wished to end Israel's prehistory on a note of judgment. Left to themselves, there is no hope for humanity" (Greidanus).